Key to Islamic Concepts
In order to understand Islam it is necessary to know the meaning of
certain key terms and the identity of some proper names. Most of them are
in the Arabic language, and there is often no equivalent in English or
in other tongues.
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was a cousin of Muhammad and married to the Prophet's daughter, Fatima.
He was elected fourth caliph of - conflict between the followers of Ali
and Umayyads split Islam into the sects that exist today. His followers
are called "Alids."
The true name for the creator of the Universe is called Allah. He
is merciful, the Beneficent, the Knowledgeable, the Protector, the Mighty,
the God, the Provider, the Exalted, the Lord, the All-Knowing, the All-Hearing,
the All-Seeing, the Magnificent, the Wise, the Loving, the First, the Last,
and the Eternal.
The Qur'an mentions 99 beautiful names for Allah through which
Muslim do recognize Him, and His responsibilities for the whole Universe.
Many people ask why the term "Allah" is used instead of "God"
and assume it's use implies that Muslims worship a separate God. There
is only ONE GOD - a belief held by followers of each of the three main
world religions : Islam, Christianity and Judaism.
ALLAH is the Supreme Being, the one and only God. Allah is the
same God as that worshipped by the Jews and Christians, and Arabic-speaking
Christians also use this name when referring to God.
Many equate Islam and Muslims to mean Arabs. Muslims may be any nationality.
An Arab could be a Muslim, a Christian, a Jew or an atheist. Arabs constitute
only about twenty percent of the Muslim population.
The Arabic meaning of Ayah is a miracle and a sign. The Qur'an is considered
to be a miracle itself. Each verse or sentence is called an Ayah or a miracle.
The plural of Ayah is called Ayat, which means miracles.
The call for the daily prayers are called Azan. The person who calls the
Azan is called a Mu'azzin. A Mu'azzin calls the Azan five times a day before
Muslims are to perform their daily Salah (Prayer).
The Azan is composed of specific words and phrases to be recited
loudly in the Arabic language so that the neighbors can recognize the time
schedule for the prayers.
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Muslim believe that people are born free of sin. It is only after they
reach the age of puberty and it is only after they commit sins that they
are to be charged for their mistakes. No one is responsible for or can
take the responsibility for the sins of others. However, the door of forgiveness
through true repentance is always open.
Bid'at (innovation) is something that has no Islamic basis. A thing which
is not proved from the Holy Quran and Hadith, as in practice at the time
of the Holy Prophet, his companions, but is now done as religious duty.
The Prophet (saw) has condemned one who indulges in innovation
and called them "destroyer of the religion".
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From Arabic Khalifa, means deputy or successor and is the title of the
theoretical leader of Islam. see also [KHALIFAH]
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The word 'Eid is an Arabic name to mean a festivity, a celebration, a recurring
happiness, and a feast. In Islam, there are two major 'Eids namely the
feast of Ramadhan ('EId Al-Fitr) and the Feast of Sacrifice ('Eid Al-Adhha).
The first 'Eid is celebrated by Muslims after fasting the month of Ramadhan
as a matter of thanks and gratitude to Almighty Allah. It takes place on
the first day of Shawwal, the tenth month of the lunar calendar. The second
'Eid is the Feast of Sacrifice and it is to be celebrated for the memory
of prophet Ibrahim trying to sacrifice his son Isma'il (Ishmael). This
'Eid lasts four days between the tenth and the thirteenth day of Zul-Hijjah,
the twelfth month of the lunar calendar.
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Other than the two general feasts, there are few festivities that Muslims
do enjoy. These are related to different activities or functions. Some
of these activities are:
'Aqiqah: It is a dinner reception to be made after a child is born.
Relatives, friends, and neighbors are invited for such an occasion.
Walimah: It is a dinner reception to be made after a marriage is
consummated. It is offered by the parents and/or by the married couples.
Friends, relatives, and neighbors are also invited.
The meaning of the word fiqh is understanding, comprehension, knowledge,
and jurisprudence in Islam. A jurist is called a Faqih who is an expert
in matters of Islamic legal matters.
A Faqih is to pass verdicts within the rules of the Islamic Law namely
The most famous scholars of Fiqh in the history Muslims are the
founders of the four schools of thought in Islam: Imam Malik, Imam Ash-Shafi'i,
Imam Abu Hanifah, and Imam Ahmad.
Anything or action in Islam falls within the following five categories
Imam Abu Hanifah also puts another category between the Makruh and the
Haram. It is called Karahah Tahrimiyyah which means hated almost to the
level of Haram.
Fardh (Must): This category is a must for the Muslim to do such
as the five daily prayers. Doing the Fardh counts as a good deed, and not
doing it is considered a bad deed or a sin.
It is also called Wajib except for Imam Abu Hanifah who makes Wajib
a separate category between the Fardh and the Mubah.
Mandub (Recommended): This category is recommended for the Muslim
to do such as extra prayers after Zuhr and Maghrib. Doing the Mandub counts
as a good deed and not doing it does not count as a bad deed or a sin.
Mubah (Allowed): This category is left undecided and left for the
person, such as eating apples or oranges. Doing or not doing the Mubah
does not count as a good or bad deed.
Intention of the person can change Mubah to Fard, Mandub, Makruh,
Other things could also change the status of the Mubah. For example,
any Mubah becomes Haram if it is proven harmful, and any necessary thing
to fulfill a Fardh is a Fardh too.
Makruh (Hated): This category is a detested and hated such as growing
fingernails or sleeping on the stomach. Not doing the Makruh counts as
a good deed and doing it does not count as a bad deed.
Haram (Prohibited): This category is prohibited for the Muslim to
do such as stealing and lying. Doing the haram counts as a bad deed and
not doing it counts as a good deed.
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Meaning communication or narrative, it is the record of an individual saying
or action or approvals of Muhammad (s.a.w.) taken as a model of behavior
The sayings and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) are
called Hadith. These are the real explanation, interpretation, and the
living example of the Prophet (s.a.w.) for teachings of the Qur'an. His
sayings are found in books called the Hadith books.
Some famous collectors of Hadith are Imam Al-Bukhari, Imam Muslim,
Imam An-Nasa'i, Imam Abu Dawood, Imam At-Tirmizi, and Imam Majah. There
are many others.
Hajj is an Arabic word which means the performance of pilgrimage to Makkah
in Arabia. It is one of the five pillars of Islam. A Muslim is to perform
Hajj at least once in his/her life, if means and health allow.
There are rules and regulations and specific dress to be followed.
It is to take place during the last month of the lunar calendar called
the month of Zul-Hijjah.
These are two Arabic words to mean lawful an unlawful respectively. The
standards are based on the Qur'an and the Hadith; and Muslims are to abide
in their daily life activities by the teachings of their standards.
These two concepts are very important when one talks about moral,
physical, spiritual, medical, biological, and dietetic aspects of Islam.
Muslims talk regularly about Halal and Haram for anything they do.
When Muslims talk about meat, for example, they use the terminology
of Zabihah to mean Halal; hence be lawful to be eaten.
The Arabic root of this word is Hafiza which means to memorize. In the
religious sense, Muslims try to memorize the whole Qur'an. Any person who
achieves this task is called Hafiz. A Hafiz is recognized by his community
and is given certain privileges. There millions of Muslims who make Hifz
of the whole Qur'an.
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Exerting the sum total of one's ability attempting to uncover Allah's rulings
on issues from their sources (Qur'an, Sunnah, Ijma', etc.). Sometimes divided
into complete ijtihad (the ability of one to independently arrive at Allah's
rulings in all areas of fiqh) and partial ijtihad (the ability of one to
do so only in certain areas of fiqh in which they have exerted such efforts).
Imam is a religious leader. Any person who leads a congregational prayer
is called an Imam. A religious leader who also leads his community in the
political affairs may be called an Imam, an Amir, or a Caliph. However,
an Imam is not infallible. He is responsible for his mistakes to all the
members of the community and above all he is responsible for his mistakes
to all the members of the community and above all he is responsible to
Iqamah is an Arabic word that refers to the second call for the prayer
which follows the first call (Azan). Iqamah means that the prayer is ready
to start. It is to be recited in Arabic before every obligatory prayer.
It is composed of specific words and phrases very closely related to the
Islam is an Arabic word the root of which is Silm and Salam. It means among
others: peace, greeting, salutation, obedience, loyalty, allegiance, and
submission to the will of the Creator of the Universe.
Islam is the last and final religion to all mankind and to all
generations irrespective of color, race, nationality, ethnic background,
language, or social position.
It is incorrect and objectionable to call Muslims Muhammadans,
as Muhammad is not worshipped in the way Christians worship Christ.
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It is an Arabic word the root of which is Jahada, which means to strive
for a better way of life. The nouns are Juhd, Mujahid, Jihad, and Ijtihad.
The other meanings are: endeavor, strain, exertion, effort, diligence,
fighting to defend one's life, land, and religion.
This word has been in frequent use in the Western press over the
past several years, explained directly or subtlely, to mean holy war. As
a matter of fact the term "holy war" was coined in Europe during the Crusades,
meaning the war against Muslims. It does not have a direct counterpart
in Islamic glossary, and Jihad is certainly not its translation.
Jihad is not a war to force the faith on others, as many people think
of it. It should never be interpreted as a way of compulsion of the belief
on others, since there is an explicit verse in the Qur'an that says:"There
is no compulsion in religion" Al-Qur'an: Al-Baqarah (2:256).
Jihad is not a defensive war only, but a war against any unjust
regime. If such a regime exists, a war is to be waged against the leaders,
but not against the people of that country. People should be freed from
the unjust regimes and influences so that they can freely choose to believe
Not only in peace but also in war Islam prohibits terrorism, kidnapping,
and hijacking, when carried against civilians. Whoever commits such violations
is considered a murderer in Islam, and is to be punished by the Islamic
state. during wars, Islam prohibits Muslim soldiers from harming civilians,
women, children, elderly, and the religious men like priests and rabies.
It also prohibits cutting down trees and destroying civilian constructions.
The term may be used for/by Muslims as well as non-Muslims.
These are spiritual beings that inhibit the world and are required to follow
the orders of Allah and are accountable for their deeds. They can be good
or bad, just like people. The word Jinn in Arabic means hidden, which indicates
that they are invisible creatures. They were created by Allah from fire.
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Talk or speech as in "kalamu Allah"; has also been used through the ages
to mean logic or philosophy.
Meaning "cube" in Arabic, is the principal shrine of Islam, located in
Mecca. It is the center of the Muslim pilgrimage and the point towards
which all Muslims the world over face in prayer.
The word Khalifah or Caliph is a person who is a vice gerent of someone
else. Man is considered to be the Caliph of Almighty Allah on earth. He
is to represent him and execute His wishes. The title Amir Al-Mu'minin
is also used to refer to the Chaliph, which means the leader of the believers.
Those persons who succeeded Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) were called
Caliphs. They were selected and appointed to assume the responsibility
of leadership of Muslims.
The immediate Caliphs were Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, Omar Ibn Al-Khattab,
Othman Ibn 'Affan, and 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib. These were given the nickname
of Al-Khulafa'Ar-Rashidun (The Guided Chaliphs).
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In their religious duties, Muslims depend on solar and lunar calendars.
The latter is shorter than the solar by twelve days. Fasting the month
of Ramadhan, celebrating the two major feasts ('Eid Al-Fitr and 'Eid Al-Adhha),
performing the pilgrimage to Makkah, and other religious activities depend
upon the lunar months.
The names of the lunar months are: Maharrem, Safar, Rabi' Al-Awwal,
Rabi' Al-Akhar, Jamada Al-Akhirah, Rajab, Sha'ban, Ramadhan, Shawwal, Zul-Qi'dah,
The timing of the daily prayers depend on the solar system.
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A Mahram is a man that a woman can never marry like a brother or a father.
A brother-in-law is not considered a Mahram in Islam since he can marry
her after the death or divorce of his wife (her sister). A man can also
marry his sister-in-law after the death of his brother ( her husband) or
after they get divorced. If a man and a woman get divorced because one
of them accused the other with adultery in the court, without proving it
( Li'an), the man is not considered a Mahram for her, although he can never
marry her again, according to Islamic law.
(also spelled Mecca) is the caravan town where Muhammad was born and raised.
It is near the west coast of Arabia about 45 miles (72 kilometers) from
the seaport of Jiddah and about midway between the northern and southern
ends of the Red Sea.
These are the angels of Allah. They are strict followers of the commands
of Allah. They have specific jobs to do, and they do not commit any sins
at all. They are not at all the females that some of the unbelievers thought
them to be. They were created by Allah from light .
The place of worship for the Muslims is called in Arabic a Masjid; the
plural of which is called Masajid. The English meaning is a Mosque. Muslims
can pray to Allah anywhere; however, they are demanded to establish mosques
in their neighborhood. The mosques are for the five daily prayers, for
the weekly Friday prayer, and for other social, cultural, educational,
and religious purposes.
There are three holy mosques in the world that Muslims are asked
to visit and to pray in. These are Al-Masjid Al-Haram in Makkah, Al-Masjid
An-Nabawi in Madinah, and Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem (Palestine). The
first one has Al-Ka'bah, and the second one is the Mosque of the Prophet.
The third one was the former Qiblah of Muslims, and the sight where
Allah took Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) by night from the Sacred Mosque in
Makkah. Muhammad (s.a.w) was then raised to Heaven from that place and
brought back to Makkah, all in one night. The dome of the Rock, in Jerusalem,
was built a few decades after the death of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.).
The last and the final prophet and messenger of Allah to all mankind is
called Muhammad (s.a.w.) and at the age of forty he received the message
of Islam from Allah through angel Gabriel (Jibril).
He was the last of a line of prophets like Nuh (NOah), Ibrahim
(Abraham), Musa (Moses), and Isa (Jesus).
The message of Islam was revealed to him in Makkah and Madinah
in Arabia. He died at the age of 63 (lunar years) and his grave is in his
house, which happened to be his Masjid in Madinah (Al-Masjid An-Nabawi).
Muhammad (s.a.w.) lived as an honest man, and he practiced the
teachings exactly the same way he preached. He was a prophet, a messenger,
a husband, a father, a religious leader, a political leader, and a reformer.
He is the summation, the culmination, and the purification for all the
previous prophets that came before him. He is the most influential man
in the history of mankind.
He was born in Arabia about 570 and died in 632.
(also spelled Moslem) is based on the same Arabic root as Islam (s-l-m)
and means one who submits to God, that is, a believer in Islam. Any person
who believes in the creed and the teachings of Islam is called a Muslim.
More than one billion Muslims are found in different parts of the world.
They are not to be confused with Arabs, as the latter may include Christians,
agnostics, or other non-Muslims.
the word Mohammedans is a misnomer to the believers in Islam.
It is incorrect and objectionable to call members of this religion Muhammadans,
as they do not worship Muhammad in the way Christians worship Christ. The
followers are called Muslims, i.e. those who believe in Allah and submit
to His Will.
The word Muslim in some places in the Qur'an is also used to refer to
all the ones who believed in Allah and his messages and submitted to Him,
even before Muhammad (s.a.w). Many prophets, like Nuh (NOah), Ibrahim (Abraham),
Musa (Moses), and Isa (Jesus), are called Muslims in the Qur'an.
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The meaning of the word Nabi is a prophet. To be a prophet he should receive
a revelation from Allah that does not necessarily mean a revealed book.
When a prophet is instructed to deliver his message to a certain group
of people, he is a messenger. It is stated in the Qur'an that there are
no more prophets and messengers after Muhammad.
The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) recommended that Muslims should be selective
in the names of their children as part of the identity of a Muslim. He
recommended that the most beautiful names are those which give servitude
or praise to Allah.
Combinations of various names is a matter of personal liking and
choice. Names of Allah should never be used alone. These should always
be preceded by Abdul or should be combined with another name in such a
way that the final name does not remain a specific attribute of Allah.
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(also spelled Koran, Coran, Alkoran, etc.) is the holy scripture of Islam
revealed by Allah to Muhammad. The word Qur'an means readings or recitations.
The holy book of Qur'an is called the Qur'an. It was revealed
unto Muhammad (s.a.w) from Allah through angel Gabriel (Jibril) for a period
of 23 years. There is only one Qur'an in the whole world and it is in Arabic
language. The Qur'an has one text, one language, and one dialect. It has
been memorized by millions of Muslims in different parts of the world.
The Qur'an is composed of 114 Surah (chapters). It is to be read
and recited with rules and regulations. When to be touched and to be recited,
a Muslim to be in a state of cleanliness and purity.
The authenticity and the totality of the Qur'an have been documented
and recognized. The Qur'an can not be translated at all as the Qur'an is
the exact words of Allah. Any translation is considered to be the explanation
to the meaning of the Qur'an.
The Qur'an is so rich and comprehensive in matter that it can
easily guide men and women in all works of their life. It is the ultimate
source of guidance for people in all aspects of their spiritual and material
The names and attributes that are given to the Qur'an in the Qur'an
speak for themselves. The Qur'an is also described to be bounteous, glorious,
mighty, honored, exalted, purified, wonderful, blessed, and confirming
the truth of previous revelations. The Qur'an has practically proved the
truth and effectiveness of all of its names and epithets in the life of
all true believers, who practiced its teachings sincerely and devoutly.
The Qur'an has a Universal appeal, regardless of people's color,
creed, nationality, and geographical divisions of the world. The goal of
life, as addressed in the Qur'an, is to live according to what Allah has
created us for, which is to worship Allah, and to obey his commandments
in this life, which are of course, in the interest of people, and to gain
going to Heaven and escape going to Hell in the hereafter. The real success
is going to Heaven and the real failure is going to Hell, as the Qur'an
Those who are entirely lost in their material gains and luxury,
without cultivating their spiritual and moral qualities, are declared by
Allah (s..w.t.) to be like animals, rather worse than them. The ones who
do not believe in Allah or follow His commandments are also described in
many places of the Qur'an to be dead, deaf, mute, and blind. The real living,
hearing, speaking and seeing are caused by the true belief in the heart.
So our need for learning, studying, and following the Qur'an should come
before our need for breathing, drinking and eating to survive, because
life without such guidance is a miserable life that leads to eternal punishment.
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The meaning of the word Rasul is a messenger. Allah sent many prophets
and messengers to mankind. Amongst them, the names of twenty-five are mentioned
in the Qur'an. From within the list, the Qur'an states the names of five
Rasul who are the Mighty ones. These are: Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham),
Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus), and Muhammad (s.a.w.).
The root of this word is Raka'a which means bow down. During prayers (Salah),
a Muslim is to make Ruku' in respect to Allah.
While in a position of Ruku' a Muslim is to glorify Allah three
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Salah is an Arabic word to mean a spiritual relationship and communication
between the creature and his Creator. Salah is one of the five pillars
of Islam. A special communication (Salah) is to take place five times a
day for a Muslim: Fajr (Dawn), Zuhr (Noon), 'Asr (Afternoon), Magrib (Sunset),
and 'Ishha' (Late Night).
Salah is to be performed with mental concentration, verbal communication,
vocal recitation, and physical movement to attain the spiritual uplift,
peace, harmony, and concord. There is a congregational prayer on Friday
noon (Salatul Jumu'ah) with a sermon (Khutbah) to be delivered by a religious
leader (Imam) called Khatib.
To perform Salah, a Muslim has to have ablution (Wudhu'). He/she
should make sure that cleanliness of body, clothing, and place are attained
before performing Salah.
Salah is not to be confused with prayer; the latter could be interpreted
as supplication (Du'a).
Sawm or Siyam is to mean total abstinence of food and liquid fro dawn to
sunset for one whole lunar month. For those who are married, they are to
abstain from sexual relations during that time too.
Sawm (Fasting) takes place during the ninth month of the lunar calendar
called Ramadhan. Sawm is one of the five pillars of Islam.
Total fasting is also a training process to attain self-restraint, self-control,
self-discipline, self-obedience, self-education, and self-evaluation.
Few people are excused from fasting during Ramadhan. Some are
required to make up later for the days they did not fast such as the travelers
(over 50 miles by any means), sick, pregnant women, women nursing babies,
and women during their periods. Other excused people are required to feed
a poor person one meal for each day they do not fast if they can afford
it, such as the elderly people and the ones who have permanent diseases
The word Shaikh is a title or a nickname for an elderly person or a religious
leader in a community. This title is also given to a wise person.
The meaning of the word Shaikh has been distorted, misused, and
abused by some mass media to reflect the wrong meanings.
Shaitan (Satan) is the source of evil in the world. The plural name is
Shayatin. He always tries to misguide and mislead people. The Qur'an states
that Satan is not an angel but a member of the Jinn. His other name is
When Allah created Adam, He ordered the angels as well as Iblis
to prostrate for Adam. They all obeyed the order of Allah except Iblis.
His argument was that Allah created Adam from clay and Iblis from the flame
of fire. Accordingly, Iblis thought that he was better than Adam. Hence,
Allah told him that he will dwell in Hell. Iblis asked Allah for a postponement
until the hereafter. Allah granted his request. Iblis swore that he would
mislead and misguide all the people except those sincere and devoted worshipers
of Allah. Allah told him that only the misguided ones would follow him
and that He would fill Hell with him and his followers.
(adjective Shi'i or Shi'ite) is the minority division (10-15 percent) of
Islam, consisting of scores of dissident sects opposed to Sunni Islam and
to one another. The name means "party" in the political sense and comes
from "Shi'at Ali, the party of Ali."
The root of this word is Shara'a; and some other names of it are Shar',
Shir'ah and Tashri'. The Shari'ah is the revealed and the canonical laws
of the religion of Islam.
The legislative power in the government lies in the hands of legislative
assembly. The legislators are to make rules and regulations within the
scope and dimensions of the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet (s.a.w.).
These rules constitute the Shari'ah.
It is to attribute Allah's qualities to someone else. This is called Shirk
because Allah's qualities are unequaled by any of His creatures, be they
angels, prophets, Auliya, martyrs, Imam or other devoted person. Their
qualities cannot match that of Allah.
This is the age of maturity and puberty. It is the age at which the Muslims
are considered an adult and becomes accountable for his/her duties in Islam.
There is no fixed age for that in terms of years and it is decided by three
signs: having a menstruation, period or pregnancy for girls, and being
physically mature or having a wet dream for boys, growing pubic hair, or
reaching the age of fifteen, whichever comes first.
This is the age of distinguishing. This age is used in Fiqh to decide the
age before which the mother has the right to keep the child after divorce.
It varies from one person to another. The age is reached when the child
can take care of himself or herself and no longer needs an adult to help
him eat, get dressed, and clean himself or herself. In the school of thought
of Abu Hanifah, it is seven years for the boy and nine years for the girl.
The girl is given longer time so that she can learn more of the habits
The writings of the companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.) about him, his personality,
his life story. and his ways of handling different situations is called
Sirah. The famous collections of the Sirah are At-Tabari, Ibn Ishaq, and
The Sirah is a source of reference that Muslims rely on in their
daily life situations and problems.
The root of those word is Sajada which means that a person makes prostration
to Allah in his daily prayers. While in the position of Sujud, a Muslim
is to praise Almighty Allah and glorify him.
During the position of Sujud, a Muslim is to make sure that his/her
forehead , nose, hands, knees, and toes, are all touching the floor.
In general, the word Sunnah means habit, practice, customary procedure,
or action, norm and usage sanctioned by tradition. In specific, any time
the word Sunnah is mentioned, it is to refer to Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.).
Here it means his sayings, practices, living habits. The Hadith of the
Prophet (s.a.w.) is part his Sunnah.
The two major legal sources of jurisprudence in Islam are the
Quran and the Sunnah.
The Sunnah may confirm what is mentioned in Qur'an, interpret
and explain it, specify what is meant by some general verses, limit and
restrict the meaning of some verse in it, or may explain something that
has been revealed in Qur'an.
The Sunnah has a high authority in Islam; and Allah in many places
in the Qur'an orders the Muslims to follow the teachings of Prophet Mohammad
Sunnah (adjective sunni or sunnite) also denotes the mainstream
or "orthodox" body of Muslims as opposed to Shi'a.
The Qur'an is composed of 114 chapters, each of which is called a Surah.
The plural of Surah is called Suwar, which means chapters.
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One of the five pillars of Islam is Zakah, which means purification and
increment of one's wealth.
A Muslim who has money beyond a certain quantity is to pay the
Zakah. It is also called the alms due or poor due. It is to be used in
eight categories for welfare of the society that are mentioned in the Qur'an,
namely: the poor, the needy, the sympathizers, the captives, the deptors,
the cause of Allah, the wayfarers, and for those who are to collect it.
The amount collected is 2.5% of the assets that have been owned
for over a year